from the general use of supplementing Biomass:
80% aprox. in Gasolene/Diesel based generator
In dryers, ovens, furnaces, thermo packs, boilers
etc. where liquid or gaseous fuels are currently
in use. In case of electric ovens/furnaces,
sizing has to be carefully done and some changes
in current designs/operating procedures may
be needed. In addition to straight thermal applications
for tea/ coffee drying, bakery ovens, brick
/ lime / pottery kilns, various industrial dryers,
ovens and furnaces as well as boiler firing,
typical applications could be in the industries
like CO2 production where producer gas could
provide the main product (CO2) as well as power
and heat for the process at a very economic
cost. While it is quite evident from the product
range that it can be used in many industrial
applications, here are few of them, which narrates
about how some of the present industrial applications
has been made:
In one of the factories in Maharastra State
in India, a Sugar factory is using as its major
power source which runs on: agricultural residues
like sugarcane leaves, Bajra residues, wheat
residues, etc. this is on a Thermal gasifier
of 800 kW capacity. It is a multi-fuel gasifier.
it runs on sugarcane leaves, Bajra husk, safflower
residues, sweet sorghum stalks and bagasse,
sugarcane bagasse, etc. About 20-24% of the
fuel is converted into char, which is a value
· Zero waste water system. Hot gas cleaning.
· PLC controlled unit. Only two operators per
shift are required.
/ Tile Kiln running on Biomass Gasifier
A great example of energy savings and eco-friendlysense
using Naturaland inexpensive feeds for energy
output & huge savings.
Generally in India coal is used as a fuel for
burning bricks/tiles in the traditional kilns.
The concentration of suspended particulate matter
(SPM) and other allied gaseous pollutants are
usually high in stack emission from these kilns.
This causes an overall deterioration in the
ambient air quality of the region. On the other
hand agricultural residues such as rice husk,
saw dust, cotton stalk, coconut shell, tea waste
etc. are available in huge quantity, which could
be utilized as supplementary fuel for burning
of bricks and tiles. Development of appropriate
technology for the conversion of such type of
biomass into heat energy through gasification
is imperative and need exhaustive R&D efforts.
Keeping this fact in view a collaborative project
has been undertaken at Central Building Research
Institute, Roorkee with Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore, through financial support
of Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources,
New Delhi, to explore techno feasibility of
utilizing biomass in firing of bricks and tiles
in kiln through gasification system.
Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee
in India, has a down draft kiln of capacity
to burn 8-10 ton of clay products per batch.
Based on the available technical data for burning
of bricks in down draft kilns, using fire wood
as fuel, the thermal capacity of gasifier has
been worked out to be 750 kW with an average
consumption of 200 kg bio-mass per hour. The
gasifier has been designed fabricated and installed
at CBRI near down draft kiln.
Few operational trials of the gasifier for burning
bricks in down draft kiln have been conducted
using fire wood pieces. A close control on the
air/fuel ratio was maintained by regularly measuring
the proportion of oxygen in the exhaust gases.
The level of SPM, CO2, SO2, CO NOx were also
measured and found to be substantially lower
when coal is used for firing bricks in such
kilns. Fuel gas temperature, stack draft, fuel
consumption, rate of rise temperature at various
zones in the down draft kiln at different time
intervals, were also recorded. The temperature
achieved in the kiln varied from 925o-940oC.
Further work is under progress to utilize appropriate
mixtures of firewood and cotton stalk as a fuel
to fire the bricks in the down draft kiln.
Island Electrification and
also running of
Cottage Industries on a small
West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency
(WBREDA), Calcutta [India] has recently awarded
the contract for Electrification of Chhotomollakhali
Islands in the Sunderbans using biomass gasifier
tour associates in India. This is the second
such project with a power plant rating of 500
kWe. The first trend-setting and ambitious project
for Gosaba Island in the Sunderbans was commissioned
for WBREDA by our associates in June, 1997.
The projects are jointly funded by Ministry
of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES), Government
of India and WBREDA/State Government and implemented
by WBREDA, the state nodal agency. The overall
management at the local level is by a Rural
Energy Co-operative specifically formed for
the purpose. The project already has over 400
customers and there has been a strident demand
for extension of services to other parts of
the island. MNES has therefore sanctioned an
additional feeder line which will allow the
project to serve another couple of hundred customers.
The plant is being run and managed by two local
youths employed for the purpose by the company.
The co-operative is responsible for distribution
of electricity, collection of tariffs as well
as overall management of the power plant. The
electricity is being supplied at the rate of
Rs.4.75 per kWhr in a sustainable manner.
Encouraged by the unqualified success of the
Gosaba project, the Chhotomollahkhali project
has already been initiated and should be operative
before end of Year 2000. WBREDA is also preparing
ambitious plans for the entire Sunderbans area
for extensive use of this environment-friendly
and cost effective technology. Similar plans
are also under formulation/implementation in
various Northeastern States of the country where
diesel based power generation is extensively
Over a wide range - engine selection has to
be carefully done. Coupled to large energy plantations
or naturally growing hard species like prosopis
etc., power generation at megawatt level can
be undertaken for feeding into the grid. This
could also provide a strong economic motive
for raising of plantations in wastelands of
backward areas. In case of industries with captive
feedstock, surplus power can also be fed into
paralleled operation/grid feeding:
Very interesting Grid paralled operations can
be done and the surplus power can be fed to
the grid and hence if major line of such projects
are organized at village or remote levels it
can also be a savings and the return on the
project can be much faster as the revenue flows
on daily basis.
/ cold storage applications:
Wherein both thermal energy (for washing / absorption
refrigeration as well as power could be produced
in requisite proportions.
Extremely interesting co-generation possibilities
include: SIMULTANEOUS production f charcoal
and power wherein energy inefficiencies and
air pollution problems of traditional charcoal
making are converted to electricity as a by-product
AND OBVIOUSLY MANY MORE USES IN RURAL AND INDUSTRIAL
AREAS CAN BE MADE, if you have ay specific questions
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